paper just published in Foods
1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, V94 T9PX Limerick, Ireland
2 Health Research Institute, University of Limerick, V94 T9PX Limerick, Ireland
3 Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, V94 T9PX Limerick, Ireland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Several bioactives from fruit juices and beverages like phenolics, nucleotides and polar lipids (PL) have exhibited anti-platelet cardio-protective properties. However, apple juice and cider lipid bioactives have not been evaluated so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects and structure activity relationships of Irish apple juice and Real Irish cider lipid bioactives against the platelet-activating factor (PAF)- and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-related thrombotic and inflammatory manifestations in human platelets. Total Lipids (TL) were extracted from low, moderate and high in tannins apple juices and from their derived-through-fermentation cider products, as well as from commercial apple juice and cider. These were separated into neutral lipids (NL) and PL, while all lipid extracts were further assessed for their ability to inhibit aggregation of human platelets induced by PAF and ADP. In all cases, PL exhibited the strongest anti-platelet bioactivities and were further separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis into PL subclasses/fractions that were also assessed for their antiplatelet potency. The PL from low in tannins apple juice exhibited the strongest antiplatelet effects against PAF and ADP, while PL from its fermented cider product were less active. Moreover, the phosphatidylcholines (PC) in apple juices and the phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) in apple ciders were the most bioactive HPLC-derived PL subclasses against PAF-induced platelet aggregation. Structural elucidation of the fatty acid composition by gas chromatography mass spectra (GCMS) analysis showed that PL from all samples are rich in beneficial monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), providing a possible explanation for their strong anti-platelet properties, while the favorable low levels of their omega-6/omega-3 (n-6/n-3) PUFA ratio, especially for the bioactive PC and PE subclasses, further support an anti-inflammatory cardio-protective potency for these apple products. In conclusion, Irish apple juice and Real Irish cider were found to possess bioactive PL compounds with strong antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory properties, while fermentation seems to be an important modulating factor on their lipid content, structures and bioactivities. However, further studies are needed to evaluate these effects.