Wednesday, 5 June 2019

Changes in plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles over 13 years and correlates of change: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk Study

Associations between changes in food groups and changes in plasma fatty acid groups from 1993–1997 to 1998–2000 (between study health checks 1 and 2): European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk Study. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used in the analyses. Each value represents a mean relative difference (%) in change/y in mol% of each fatty acid group, per 1-standard serving/d/y increase in food groups (*P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01). Red and blue boxes indicate positive and negative associations, respectively, of change/y in food consumption with change/y in mol% of fatty acids. Mean annual changes in mol% of each fatty acid group are presented in the top row (above the box). Serving sizes were defined as 10 g/d for margarine, liver, nuts, and seeds; as 1 g/d for vegetable oil and 10 units/wk for alcohol; and as 100 g/d for the other food groups. All the estimates were mutually adjusted for changes in food groups and baseline consumption levels of those foods, and adjusted for baseline levels of the given fatty acid and other potential confounders (see Methods text for detail). TFA, trans-fatty acids.

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this is an interesting study of changes in plasma fatty acid changes over 13 years.

Adjusted for confounders, fatty acid concentrations decreased for odd-chain SFAs (annual percentage difference in mol percentage: −0.63%), even-chain SFAs (−0.05%), n–6 PUFAs (−0.25%), and TFAs (−7.84%). In contrast, concentrations increased for marine n–3 PUFAs (1.28%) and MUFAs (0.45%), but there were no changes in very-long-chain SFAs or plant n–3 PUFA. Changes in fatty acid levels were associated with consumption of different food groups. For example, a mean 100 g/d increase in fatty fish intake was associated with a 19.3% greater annual increase in marine n–3 PUFAs.
Even-chain SFAs and TFAs declined and marine n–3 PUFAs increased over time. These changes were partially explained by changes in dietary habits, and could potentially help interpret associations of baseline fatty acid composition with future disease risk.