Dairy consumption and inflammatory profile: A cross-sectional population-based study, São Paulo, Brazil
Data were acquired from the Health Survey for São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. All individuals 20 to 59 y of age with complete food consumption information (24-h dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire) and blood sample analysis were included (N = 259). The sample was separated into two groups according to systemic inflammatory pattern considering plasma levels of C-reactive protein; tumor necrosis factor-α; soluble intracellular adhesion molecule; soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, monocyte chemoattractant protein; interleukin-1β, -6, -8, -10, and -12; adiponectin; leptin; and homocysteine. Multiple logistic regression tests were conducted to estimate the odds ratio for the inflammatory cluster across tertiles of dairy consumption.
When adjusted by age, smoking status, and energy intake the odds ratio for the inflammatory cluster group in the highest tertile of yogurt consumption was 0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14–0.81) relative to the reference tertile, demonstrating also a linear effect (Ptrend = 0.015). Cheese consumption exhibited an odds ratio of 2.49 (95% CI, 1.09–5.75) relative to the reference.
Increasing yogurt consumption might have a protective effect on inflammation, whereas cheese consumption appears to be associated with a proinflammatory status. The results of the present study aggregate a new perspective on existing evidence demonstrating the importance of assessing the contribution of dairy products on diet and their effect on the development of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors.